Creates favorable soil EC: The more EC value of the soil is undesired for the crop growth. The high EC of soil are due to fertilizer application as well as by the weathering of soil minerals. Gypsum, being readily soluble, results in proper buffered solute concentration (EC) in soil to maintain soil in a flocculated state.
In recent years, a great deal of attention has been paid, both in Russia and internationally, to the opportunities for recycling gypsum-rich industrial waste by-products in the production process of a number of different gypsum binders. In Russia, this has gone on to involve the mechanical and chemical activation of components, which makes possible a significant release of energy in the particles of clinker and siliceous additive. This enables the swift formation of calcium hydrosulpho-aluminates and calcium hydroxide when the gypsum-rich binder compound is mixed with water during the early stages of hardening. The action of silica minerals is increased. This has the result that the hydration level of cement which contains GFP reaches its maximum in 90-120 days, while the concentration and quantity of aluminates is reduced to a level at which any danger of damage to the hydrosulphate aluminates or of a weakening in the material’s structure is eliminated. During the manufacture of an organic modifier, it is of primary importance to bear in mind the proportions to be used of the silica-containing compound, and of Portland cement. This proportion depends on the activity-level of the silica, and the kind and chemical composition of the cement being used. In turn, the activity-level of the silica additive similarly depends not so much on its origins, but on the degree of fineness to which it has been ground. During grinding, and most especially if there are surfactants present, the activity-level of silica particles increases – as is confirmed by the absorption rate of lime slurry which is produced in accordance with the TU 21-31-62-79. These results show that an increase in the specific surface area of the ground particles causes an increase in its activity in solution. Thus, if the specific surface areas of silicate granules and Portland cement and silicate conform to 300 and 500 m2/kg then the required proportion of silica to Portland cement is exactly 1.5. If the specific surface area of the silicate granules is increased to 712 m2/kg then the proportion drops to exactly 1:1.
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Environmental Catastrophe Based on Phosphate Mining in Florida With the emergence of ”the sinkhole” in the worst possible place, the stack transforms from looming presence to immediate crisis. Untold amounts of contaminated water running from the gypsum stack rush in the sinkhole. The sinkhole expands to about 160 feet in diameter and about 200 feet deep. Untold volumes of contaminated waste in the form of radioactive phosphate slurry drain directly through the sinkhole opening into the Upper Floridan Aquifer, a vital source of drinking water in Southwest Central Florida. The sinkhole stopped growing when experts succeeded in plugging the sinkhole with concrete. The local citizens of Florida do not here much from the local or national press even with the types of tragic events described above.
Turning now to Russia, the gypsum industry, just like the whole BMI business, is going through some difficult times. Companies in the industry, with very few exceptions, are in a run-down state, manufacturing is barely profitable, and the money made in the business is not sufficient to permit upgrading of obsolete equipment, far less to carry out any kinds of existing or upcoming R&D. This all means that gypsum-based materials are frequently low-quality. This is the cause of their neglect, and this leads on to a widespread drop in production. Market opportunities in recent years have been instead snapped up by foreign manufacturers, and the amount of over-priced and poor-quality goods on the market has added to the woes encountered by gypsum manufacturers.
Gypsum’s debut exhibition, ’Spectral Days’, is an unusual photography curation from international artist, Setareh Shahbazi. Born in Tehran in 1978 but forced into exile to Germany in 1985, Shahbazi presents a collection of her own family photographs from around this time, which have been revived and revamped through various experimental digital techniques. Exploring the remembrance of the past, captured in old photographs, there’s a powerful, overarching meaning behind the exhibition.
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