The covering of the exposed drainage pipe commences with a frame work of mild steel or timber. The timber is in the thickness of two inches. Steel nails are used to fix the timber to the wall or concrete. The size of the pipe will guide the width of the covers. A pipe of two inches gets a cover of six inches, while one for four inches or six inches has a cover of ten inches wide. The appropriate width is then measured out and marked for the intended pipe.
In the immaculate, sun-lit gallery, more than forty photographs make up the colourful collection, each hinting at a deep family history, uprooted after the bloody Iranian revolution of 1979. Given Egypt’s own current political situation, this particular exhibition seems fitting to the times. Other than a written explanation of the project, little information is given on the individual pieces, hindering the understanding of any underlying meanings, and neglecting to unveil the artists own memories attached to each picture.
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Environmental Catastrophe Based on Phosphate Mining in Florida With the emergence of ”the sinkhole” in the worst possible place, the stack transforms from looming presence to immediate crisis. Untold amounts of contaminated water running from the gypsum stack rush in the sinkhole. The sinkhole expands to about 160 feet in diameter and about 200 feet deep. Untold volumes of contaminated waste in the form of radioactive phosphate slurry drain directly through the sinkhole opening into the Upper Floridan Aquifer, a vital source of drinking water in Southwest Central Florida. The sinkhole stopped growing when experts succeeded in plugging the sinkhole with concrete. The local citizens of Florida do not here much from the local or national press even with the types of tragic events described above.
Lakes can be treated with gypsum in two ways. One is with gypsum powder. While this may work faster, it may not last as long. The other is with gypsum rocks. The rocks are dumped into the water. These may take longer to clear the body of water, but the results are also more long-lasting. The amount of gypsum powder or rocks used will vary from location to location depending on the severity of the turbidity and also the size of the lake or pond.
Some gypsum plaster systems can be applied directly to drywall with the use of bonding agents. This type of plaster, known as ”veneer plaster”, is typically applied in one thin coat. Gypsum veneer plaster is fast and usually less expensive than traditional gypsum plaster. When applying a veneer plaster, all joints in the drywall must be prepared with joint compound or with the manufacturer’s recommended joint treatment materials. Once the joints are treated, a bonding agent is required. This is a water based PVA (polyvinyl acetate) or an acrylic bonding agent. PVA bonding agents are for interior use only because they re-emulsify when they get wet. PVA bonding agents are the most popular because they can be dry before the plaster coat is applied (as opposed to an acrylic bonding agent, which must still be wet when the plaster is applied, forcing the applicator to rush the process). A controlled environment is also important when applying a gypsum veneer finish, although some veneers are modified with acrylics, cement and chemicals, providing a better bond, higher compressive and tensile strengths, crack resistance, color retention and crack resistance. These modifications may make the product easier to work with and will give the applicator more flexibility. Once the finish coat is dry and completed, it should be sealed with a water based sealer.
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